This new research tool offers a more profound view of the immune responses that are involved in a range of diseases, such as HIV infection. At the level of gene transcription, this had been difficult, complex and costly to do with current technologies, such as microscopy.
Researchers created a synthetic surface on which the adhesion of E. coli bacteria can be controlled. The layer, which is only approximately four nanometres thick, imitates the saccharide coating (glycocalyx) of cells onto which the bacteria adhere such as during an infection.
Scientists have created the world's first enzymes made from artificial genetic material. Their synthetic enzymes, which are made from molecules that do not occur anywhere in nature, are capable of triggering chemical reactions in the lab.
Protein-coated Petri dishes are increasingly being used to support cell growth during cell cultivation. Scientists have developed a system for printing protein patterns onto film using a roll-to-roll process, which allows high volumes to be manufactured efficiently and cost-effectively.
The main focus of enzymology lies on enzymes themselves, whereas the role of water motions in mediating the biological reaction is often left aside owing to the complex molecular behavior. Researchers have revised the classical enzymatic steady state theory by including long-lasting protein-water coupled motions into models of functional catalysis.
Scientists report a new method for establishing whether chemical compounds are safe for human use without in-vivo testing, based on so-called 'molecular initiating events' at the boundary between chemistry and biology.
As genome sequencing has gotten faster and cheaper, the pace of whole-genome sequencing has accelerated, dramatically increasing the number of genomes deposited in public archives. Although these genomes are a valuable resource, problems can arise when researchers misapply computational methods to assemble them, or accidentally introduce unnoticed contaminations during sequencing.
Until now, in cases of bone fracture, doctors have used implants made of steel and titanium, which have to be removed after healing. To spare patients burdensome interventions, researchers are working on a bone substitute that completely degrades in the body. Towards this end, material combinations of metal and ceramic are being used.