A team of researchers studying a flowering plant has zeroed in on the way cells manage external signals about prevailing conditions, a capability that is essential for cells to survive in a fluctuating environment.
In laboratory tests, researchers have used electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce the same patterns of activity that occur when the retina sees a moving object. Although more work remains, this is a step toward restoring natural, high-fidelity vision to blind people.
The transport routes of nutrients and messenger cargos can be compared to the traffic system of a city: A worldwide unique quantitative study of cell biologists shows that cells regulate the main routes, side routes and intersections by an intricate traffic control system, which guides the spatial and temporal distribution of substances within the cell.
The reason why many people are allergic to birch pollen has not been fully clarified yet. It is known that a specific birch pollen protein causes the immune system to overreact. What makes it an allergen has now been discovered by scientists at the Vetmeduni Vienna. The pollen protein can bind iron. Without iron load the protein becomes an allergen. Environmental factors are possibly the reason for low iron loads in plants.
Researchers have investigated the interaction between the plant's barrier, plant protection products and adjuvants that are added to increase the effect of the plant protection product. The results of this research can be applied to minimise the use of plant protection products in agriculture.
Scientists have been able to reproduce, for the first time in human cells, chromosomal translocations associated with two types of cancer: acute myeloid leukemia and Ewing's sarcoma. The discovery opens the door to the development of new therapeutic targets to fight these types of cancer.
Scientists have discovered how a molecular 'scaffold' which allows key parts of cells to interact, comes apart in dementia and motor neuron disease, revealing a potential new target for drug discovery.
Like exploring the inner workings of a clock, a team of researchers is digging into the inner workings of the tiny cellular machines called spliceosomes, which help make all of the proteins our bodies need to function. In a recent study, they have captured images of this machine, revealing details never seen before.
The impact of the environment on our genetic makeup has long been a topic of discussion among researchers. Now a European consortium (EURATRANS) has taken the opposite approach. The scientists have investigated for the first time to what extent specific genetic predispositions influence the processes of gene regulation.
The gap between stem cell research and regenerative medicine just became a lot narrower, thanks to a new technique that coaxes stem cells to take the first step to specialization for the first time in a laboratory. Researchers demonstrated that not only is it possible for mouse embryonic stem cells to form three distinct germ layers in the lab, but also that it requires correct timing, chemical factors and mechanical environment.
Pioneering 'tweezers' that use ultrasound beams to grip and manipulate tiny clusters of cells under electronic, push-button control could lead to life-changing medical advances, such as better cartilage implants that reduce the need for knee replacement operations.
A new technology under development at the Georgia Institute of Technology could one day provide more efficient delivery of the bone regenerating growth factors with greater accuracy and at a lower cost.