By analyzing data from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the PHENIX collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, USA, including scientists from the RIKEN BNL Research Center and the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, has now ruled out gluons as the dominant contributor to proton spin.
Scientists at the University of Konstanz in Germany and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States have built the first optical frequency comb - a tool for precisely measuring different frequencies of visible light - that actually looks like a comb.
Using precision techniques for making superconducting thin films layer-by-layer, physicists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory have identified a single layer responsible for one such material's ability to become superconducting, i.e., carry electrical current with no energy loss.
A team of investigators from the University of Toronto have used nanomaterials to develop an inexpensive microchip sensitive enough to quickly determine the type and severity of a patient's cancer so that the disease can be detected earlier for more effective treatment.
Cancer cells, like bacteria, can develop resistance to drug therapy, leading to relapse of disease. One approach showing promise in overcoming multidrug resistance in tumors is to combine two different anticancer agents in one nanoscale construct, providing a one-two punch that can prove lethal to such resistant cells.
Researchers at the Winthrop Rockefeller Cancer Institute and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences have developed another fiber optic technique that can detect lymph node metastases and destroy them on the spot, an action that could prevent the further spread of breast cancer, melanoma, or gastrointestinal cancer, all of which spread through the lymphatic system.
Cisplatin is one of the most powerful and effective drugs for treating a wide variety of cancers, but serious side effects ultimately limit the drug's use and effectiveness. Now, however, researchers have developed a nanoparticulate formulation of cisplatin that may be able to eliminate or reduce platinum-associated toxicity while boosting cisplatin's tumor-killing activity.
Markku Rajala has been nominated as the awardee of the Fine Particle Forum Award 2009. For long, Rajala has carried a central role in the networking of the Finnish fine particle field by increasing the interaction both between academia and industry and within industry stakeholders, in an unprejudiced, interdisciplinary way.