Very recently, the use of zwitterionic coatings has emerged as an alternative strategy to provide corona free nanoparticles. The layers of proteins adsorbed to the surface of a nanomaterial at any given time is known as the protein corona. This protein layer can hinder interactions between the targeting ligands at the surface of nanoparticles and their binding partners on the cells' surface. Researchers found that by using both zwitterionic- and targeting-ligands at the surface of nanoparticles, the shielding effects of protein corona can be reduced.
Oral cancer represents one of the most dreadful killer diseases globally. Researchers have developed nano-sized layer by layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolytes onto calcium carbonate particles to deliver small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors to human oral cancer cells. Calcium carbonate is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral with a porous structure generates a large surface area. It is biocompatible, biodegradable, acts as a sacrificial core template, and offers the opportunity to capture effectively a myriad molecules of interest like drugs, proteins, enzymes, etc. The researchers encapsulated sorafenib - a tyrosine kinase inhibitor - in CaCO3 nanoparticles, which was layered alternatively with biodegradable polyelectrolytes to form a multilayer shell.
Studies show hat mitochondrial metabolism theoretically is a plausible target for cancer therapy. Mitochondria are the primary controllers of cellular suicide; however, cancer cells trick this normal cellular mechanism and evade this process leading to uncontrolled cellular growth. To trigger the suicide switch back on, new work uses a highly selective nanotechnology-based approach to deliver a widely available small molecule commonly found as a by-product of a water chlorination process.
Researchers have demonstrated that the coupling of pristine graphene sheets on practically any polymer surface can be accomplished in mild reaction conditions and in aqueous medium. The method leaves intact the 2D planar structure of graphene preserving its original features. This novel hybrid construct enables in vivo photoacoustic signal enhancement and is a very promising step forward for an implementation of photoacoustic imaging, a powerful preclinical diagnostic tool.
Currently in the clinic and in clinical development, there is heavy emphasis placed on understanding how drugs can be 'complementary'. That is to say, what combination of drugs will be most effective in killing tumor cells and overcome potential resistance mechanisms. In fact, adding synergistic combinations of drugs is reshaping how cancer is treated, even in the context of immunotherapy. A new study provides critical evidence that complementary drugs must be in spatial proximity to truly exert their synergistic potential.
Researchers have shown, using a mouse model of osteoarthritis, that curcumin loaded nanoparticles topically applied to arthritic knees stopped the progression of the disease and eliminated associated pain by locally delivering curcumin to the fat pad associated with the knee cap. The study also demonstrated several osteoarthritis relevant inflammatory pathways were suppressed by curcumin, including those that result in the production of proteins that destroy cartilage.
MoS2 nanosheets have shown great prospect as a near-infrared light (NIR) absorbing agent for PTT applications due to their unique photoelectric property, low cost and good biocompatibility. However, the absorbance of nanosheets in the NIR region is not specific and strong, and the photothermal conversion efficiency of MoS2 based materials need to be enhanced. In new work, researchers have proposed a novel MoS2 nanostructure, i.e. layered MoS2 hollow spheres (LMHSs), for improving their near-infrared absorption and photothermal conversion efficiency.
The manufacture of nanoparticles has reached a very high level of control of their shape, size and chemical nature. However, assembling nanoparticles in a controlled manner and with clearly defined functionalities in three-dimensional space remains quite a challenge. Researchers have now taken a first step towards the goal of protein-driven assembly of nanoparticles. In this ground-breaking work, they show that gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 10nm can be assembled using two different protein pairs.