Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) is an extension of AFM. The technique was first published
in 1991 by Nonnenmacher and coworkers. Using KPFM, images can be recorded that contain
information on the local work function or local contact potential difference between tip and
Although all Nanite systems with an SPM S200 controller and all current easyScan 2 AFM systems
are in principle capable of performing KPFM, the FlexAFM has demonstrated best KPFM
performance and is therefore the instrument of choice for this type of measurement
Figure: KPFM measurement. KPFM signal (left) and Topography (right) of local charges that were placed on an insulating (oxide) surface layer in a "Swiss cross" pattern. Image courtesy: Marcin Kisiel, Thilo Glatzel and students of the Nanocurriculum of the University of Basel.