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Posted: Oct 03, 2013

New X-ray vision can reveal internal nanostructure of objects

(Nanowerk News) University of Manchester researchers, working with colleagues in the UK, Europe and the US, say the novel imaging technique could have a wide range of applications across many disciplines, such as materials science, geology, environmental science and medical research.
“This new imaging method – termed Pair Distribution Function-Computed Tomography – represents one of the most significant developments in X-ray micro tomography for almost 30 years,” said Professor Robert Cernik in Manchester’s School of Materials.
“Using this method we are able to image objects in a non-invasive manner to reveal their physical and chemical nano-properties and relate these to their distribution in three-dimensional space at the micron scale.
“Such relationships are key to understanding the properties of materials and so could be used to look at in-situ chemical reactions, probe stress-strain gradients in manufactured components, distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify minerals and oil-bearing rocks or identify illicit substances or contraband in luggage.”
The research, published in the journal Nature Communications ("Pair Distribution Function-Computed Tomography"), explains how the new imaging technique uses scattered X-rays to form a three-dimensional reconstruction of the image.
“When X-rays hit an object they are either transmitted, absorbed or scattered,” explained Professor Cernik. “Standard X-ray tomography works by collecting the transmitted beams, rotating the sample and mathematically reconstructing a 3D image of the object. This is only a density contrast image, but by a similar method using the scattered X-rays instead we can obtain information about the structure and chemistry of the object even if it has a nanocrystalline structure.
“By using this method we are able to build a much more detailed image of the object and, for the first time, separate the nanostructure signals from the different parts of a working device to see what the atoms are doing in each location, without dismantling the object.”
Source: University of Manchester
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