The approach used involves the autologous transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ into a canine jawbone; the in vivo artificially created tooth has the structure, composition and physiological characteristics of a natural tooth.
The model system, based on E. coli, contained the bare minimum for assembling proteins: 241 chemicals undergoing 968 reactions for 1,000 seconds. Many of these chemicals twice reached steady concentrations, only to be suddenly depleted at a later stage.
Scientists have discovered which genes from the yeast genome exhibit dosage compensation - the ability to temper protein production when the corresponding encoding gene's copy number increases. In addition, they identify the underlying process to be protein degradation, and link the mechanism to stoichiometric buffering of protein complex subunits.
Scientists have completed the design phase for a fully synthetic yeast genome. Once completed, yeast cells carrying a fully artificial genome will prove invaluable for both academic and industrial applications.
A research team has developed a novel technology platform that enables the continuous and automated monitoring of so-called 'organs-on-chips' - tiny devices that incorporate living cells to mimic the biology of bona fide human organs.
Researchers have found a way to mimic the way cells in living organisms 'talk' to the world around them by creating a world-first synthetic receptor which can respond to chemical signals just like its natural equivalent.