The principle of interferometry is often used in high precision measurements: A beam is split in two parts, which then interfere, yielding intricat interference patterns, from which very precise data can be obtained. Usually, this is done with photons or small massive particles such as electrons or neutrons. At the Vienna University of Technology, an interferometer has now been built which instead uses Bose-Einstein-condensates, consisting of hundreds of atoms.
For the first time, researchers have managed to observe growth of high-efficiency chalcopyrite thin film solar cells in real time and to study the formation and degradation of defects that compromise efficiency.
The antibacterial effects of silver are well established. Now, researchers at Yonsei University in Seoul, Republic of Korea, have developed a technique to coat glass with a layer of silver ions that can prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni. The technology could be used to protect medical equipment and be particularly useful for applications in disaster recovery and the military environment.
Super-strong wires made from carbon nanotubes, which could significantly improve the efficiency with which electricity is supplied across the UK have been developed in a usable form for the first time.
Knowing how enzymes work is key to control the chemical processes involving these biological macromolecules that have countless applications in the fields of medicine and industry. Computational chemistry has enabled to draw for the first time the enzymes 'cartographic map' during the catalysis process, including the moment when they are at the point of maximum energy on the way from reactants to products that takes only a femtosecond.
Physikerinnen und Physiker der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (CAU) haben rund zwei Millionen Euro für drei Verbundprojekte am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg eingeworben. Mit den Fördergeldern des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) wollen die Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler weltweit einzigartige Hochleistungsinstrumente für Experimente mit brillanter Röntgenstrahlung entwickeln.
Ferroelektrische und -magnetische Eigenschaften voneinander abhängig in einem System zu nutzen, daran arbeiten Wissenschaftler schon seit langem. Einem Team vom Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE) der Universität Duisburg-Essen ist dies jüngst in einem Komposit-System gelungen.
Ingestion of commonly encountered nanoparticles at typical environmental levels is unlikely to cause overt toxicity, according to US researchers. Nevertheless there is insufficient evidence to determine whether chronic exposures could lead to subtle alterations in intestinal immune function, protein profiles, or microbial balance.
A technique developed several years ago at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for improving optical microscopes now has been applied to monitoring the next generation of computer chip circuit components, potentially providing the semiconductor industry with a crucial tool for improving chips for the next decade or more.