Using an instrument called an angular optical trap, researchers have reported direct measurements of the torque generated by the motor protein, E. coli RNA polymerase, as it traverses supercoiled DNA. Their technique may be used to examine the broader impacts of torque and DNA supercoiling associated with other motor proteins, and lend new insights into the gene transcription process.
Indium tin oxide has become a standard material in light-emitting diodes, flat panel plasma displays, electronic ink and other applications, but it is rare and expensive. Now, researchers from Arizona State University report creating a sturdy, transparent, and indium-free electrode from silver and titanium dioxide.
In a new study, a 'bioadhesive' coating developed at Brown University significantly improved the intestinal absorption into the bloodstream of nanoparticles that someday could carry protein drugs such as insulin. Such a step is necessary for drugs taken by mouth, rather than injected directly into the blood.
The principle of interferometry is often used in high precision measurements: A beam is split in two parts, which then interfere, yielding intricat interference patterns, from which very precise data can be obtained. Usually, this is done with photons or small massive particles such as electrons or neutrons. At the Vienna University of Technology, an interferometer has now been built which instead uses Bose-Einstein-condensates, consisting of hundreds of atoms.
For the first time, researchers have managed to observe growth of high-efficiency chalcopyrite thin film solar cells in real time and to study the formation and degradation of defects that compromise efficiency.
The antibacterial effects of silver are well established. Now, researchers at Yonsei University in Seoul, Republic of Korea, have developed a technique to coat glass with a layer of silver ions that can prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni. The technology could be used to protect medical equipment and be particularly useful for applications in disaster recovery and the military environment.
Super-strong wires made from carbon nanotubes, which could significantly improve the efficiency with which electricity is supplied across the UK have been developed in a usable form for the first time.
Knowing how enzymes work is key to control the chemical processes involving these biological macromolecules that have countless applications in the fields of medicine and industry. Computational chemistry has enabled to draw for the first time the enzymes 'cartographic map' during the catalysis process, including the moment when they are at the point of maximum energy on the way from reactants to products that takes only a femtosecond.
Physikerinnen und Physiker der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (CAU) haben rund zwei Millionen Euro für drei Verbundprojekte am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg eingeworben. Mit den Fördergeldern des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) wollen die Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler weltweit einzigartige Hochleistungsinstrumente für Experimente mit brillanter Röntgenstrahlung entwickeln.
Ferroelektrische und -magnetische Eigenschaften voneinander abhängig in einem System zu nutzen, daran arbeiten Wissenschaftler schon seit langem. Einem Team vom Center for Nanointegration (CENIDE) der Universität Duisburg-Essen ist dies jüngst in einem Komposit-System gelungen.