Computing prime factors may sound like an elementary math problem, but try it with a large number, say one that contains more than 600 digits, and the task becomes enormously challenging and impossibly time-consuming. Now, a group of researchers at UC Santa Barbara has designed and fabricated a quantum processor capable of factoring a composite number - in this case the number 15 - into its constituent prime factors, 3 and 5.
A major improvement in the world's lightest solid material and best solid insulating material may put more of this space-age wonder into insulated clothing, refrigerators with thinner walls that hold more food, building insulation and other products.
Measuring proteins in real-time down to fM solution concentration levels, corresponding to only a few thousand of protein molecules, has been demonstrated for the first time using a hybrid photonic-plasmonic Whispering Gallery Mode biosensor. Its unprecedented sensitivity is due to optical trapping of proteins at highly sensitive plasmonic hotspots.
A technologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is experimenting with atomic layer deposition techniques that might provide an effective technique for defending sensitive spacecraft components from high-velocity bombardments in space.
Researchers have developed a novel system to simultaneously deliver a sustained dose of both an immune-system booster and a chemical to counter the cancer's secretions, resulting in a powerful therapy that, in mice, delayed tumor growth, sent tumors into remission, and dramatically increased survival rates.
Using a compound in tea that is attracted to prostate tumor cells, researchers at the University of Missouri have developed a radioactive gold nanoparticle that kills prostate tumors, without triggering common side effects of prostate cancer therapy.
In a nanotechnology two-for-one, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence have created a polymer nanoparticle that overcomes tumor resistance to the common anticancer agent doxorubicin and that protects the heart against drug-triggered damage, a therapy-ending side effect that limits doxorubicin's effectiveness. This novel nanoparticle incorporates both doxorubicin and curcumin, a major component of the bright yellow spice turmeric.
One of the challenges in treating cancer, whether using nanotechnology or not, is that tumors can often be inaccessible to the therapies designed to kill them. Mostafa El-Sayed, of the Georgia Institute of Technology, and his colleagues are attempting to overcome this obstacle by designing drug-loaded gold nanorods that attract the attention of tumor-associated immune cells known as macrophages.
Over the past six years, the National Cancer Institute's Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory has characterized more than 250 different nanomaterials developed by over 75 research groups. This extensive experience has given NCL staff a unique perspective on how to design safe and biocompatible nanomaterials for human use.