Normally, when an intense laser pulse interacts with an atom it generates agitation on the micro-scale and this interaction produces a single ionisation, where one electron is ejected from the atom. Sometimes, however, two electrons can be removed from the atom at the same time, which results in the more complex process of double ionisation. Now researchers have observed this process at attosecond time scales.
These coatings offer protection against rust, scratches and moisture and improve adhesion: Surfaces with a nano coating. A new plasma process enables these coatings to be applied more easily and cost-efficiently - on an industrial scale.
Publicly funded research should benefit everyone, not bury findings in obscure or expensive journals. The European Commission wants results from Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and Horizon 2020 projects to produce fully 'open access' publications; a project is now promoting open access and building a portal for all FP7 project publications and datasets.
The key challenges for THz technology are the development of a compact high power source and high sensitivity detector operating at room temperature. A recent discovery of a new, efficient protocol for THz wave generation that utilizes the enhancement of light between nanometer-scale electrical contacts may provide a solution.
Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), the world's first bioengineering and nanotechnology research institute, have developed a miniaturized biochip for investigating the effect of drugs on cancer stem cells.
Seven years ago, when white-light quantum dots were discovered accidentally in a Vanderbilt chemistry lab, their efficiency was too low for commercial applications and several experts predicted that it would be impossible to raise it to practical levels. Today, however, Vanderbilt researchers have proven those predictions wrong by reporting that they have successfully boosted the fluorescent efficiency of these nanocrystals from an original level of three percent to as high as 45 percent.
This mirror-image phenomenon - known as chirality or "handedness" - has captured the imagination of a UCLA research group led by Thomas G. Mason, a professor of chemistry and physics and a member of the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA.
A cross-disciplinary team of researchers at the University of Maryland has designed a molecular container that can hold drug molecules and increase their solubility, in one case up to nearly 3000 times. Their discovery opens the possibility of rehabilitating drug candidates that were insufficiently soluble.