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Nanotechnology Spotlight – Latest Articles

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Showing Spotlights 841 - 848 of 2140 in category (newest first):

 

Optical nanomanipulation kills or fuses individual cancer cells

gold_nanoparticle_conjugated_cellsResearchers in Israel have found a unique way to affect cancer cells in a rather controllable manner. For example, they can kill these cells in various ways, or they can make them fuse together, as they like. They do so by using functionalized, 20 nm in diameter gold nanospheres and specific, intense laser pulses with a visible wavelength tuned to the plasmonic resonance of those particles. This technique may have an impact on various technologies which require sophisticated cell manipulation for therapeutic and drug development applications. What is unique about this technique is that it is highly controllable and repeatable. The structural stability of the nanospheres even after the strongest laser illumination allows them to deliver the effect over and over again, until the desired result is obtained.

Jun 15th, 2012

Medical textiles: Nanofiber-based 'smart' dressings for burn wounds

band-aidsBurn injuries are one of the major global health problems. Every year 195,000 people from all over the world die because of fire alone. A burn injury may damage some or all skin layers and is caused by a hot solid, a hot liquid, or a flame. However, injuries related to electricity, radioactivity, ultraviolet radiation, chemicals and respiratory damage due to smoking are also considered as burn injuries. Besides cleaning the wound and applying various topical anti-microbial agents, wound dressings could be an effective solution in preventing microbial infections for burn care. The suitability of a burn wound dressing depends on a burn type. Conventional dressings are not efficient enough to induce haemostasis, adherence and in holding a moist environment around wound. Due to the advances in the field of nanotechnology, it is now possible to design nanofiber-based wound dressings where an electrospun-nanofibrous layer is applied to a basic support fabric material.

Jun 13th, 2012

Cement nanotubes as a natural means for reinforcing concrete

cement_nanotubeNanotechnology is increasingly being researched for applications in the construction industry and cement is a particular focus. Apart from reducing the damaging environmental side effects of cement production, another research focus is on reinforcing concrete to improve its mechanical performance. When researchers think of nanomaterial reinforcements for concrete, carbon nanotubes come as first option. The problem with carbon nanotubes is that they are water insoluble. In order to make them compatible with water chemistry, they must be functionalized in advance. To get around this problem, a team of scientists have proposed inorganic oxide nanotubes as natural means of reinforcements of cement pastes, in view of their chemically compatibility with the cement-water system.

Jun 12th, 2012

Ultrastrong, foldable, and highly conductive carbon nanotube film

cnt_filmCarbon nanotubes (CNTs) show extraordinary multifunctionality, including excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. To be used in practical applications, the CNTs need to be assembled into macroscale structures such as films, fibers and composites. Unfortunately, so far the properties of these macro-structures have been very poor, usually one to three orders of magnitude lower than that of individual CNTs. Low CNT structural perfection, alignment and intertube interaction are key issues that are responsible for such disappointing properties. Researchers have now demonstrated a simple, efficient and scalable strategy to make CNT films ultra-strong and conductive, in which the CNTs are well aligned and densely packed by exploiting drawable CNT arrays as precursors.

Jun 8th, 2012

Modulating enzyme activity with functionalized graphene oxide

graphene_oxideOne type of biomolecules, enzymes, regulate almost all chemical reactions involved in numerous biological processes in living organisms and are also widely used in research and industry. Regulation of enzyme activity and stability is very important and has always attracted great attention. Various enzyme regulators, ranging from proteins, peptides, and synthetic organic molecules, have been discovered. Recently, nanomaterials evolve as promising alternatives for enzyme modulation. Nanomaterials provide large surface areas for biomolecule adsorption and can be engineered to present multiple surface functional groups for interacting with biomolecules, such as enzymes and/or their substrates. In a recent study, scientists started to explore the interactions between functionalized graphene oxide and serine proteases, a large family of enzymes with important biomedical and industrial applications.

Jun 7th, 2012

Quantum teleportation over record distance, prelude to space networks

An international group of researchers reported a new record long distance for quantum teleportation. The authors claim a free-space distance of 143 kilometers. Quantum teleportation communicates physical information soundly without traveling directly through the space connecting the communicating parties. The reporting team includes quantum teleportation pioneer Anton Zeilinger of the Quantum Optics, Quantum Nanophysics, Quantum Information at the University of Vienna. Quantum teleportation combines classical and quantum information channels to transmit the complex state of quantum particles. The communication method conveys complete quantum information without the need to pass directly through the space between communicating parties.

Jun 4th, 2012

Summary of time reversal symmetry in optics

time_reversalNew research explores the uses of time reversal symmetry in optics, with a focus on quantum optics. The article compares time reversal with optical phase conjugation, and illustrates the concept of time reversal symmetry with several examples in classical and quantum optics. Time reversal symmetry is the physical property that events can occur in a forward or backward direction through time, with no fundamental distinction due to the direction. Time reversal symmetry applies to both classical and quantum optics, as well as areas of physics outside of optics. The property holds true in all areas of physics, with possible exceptions only under rare conditions in particle physics.

Jun 1st, 2012

Functionalizing living cells through nanotechnology

coated_cellsModifying living cell by coating them with a nanolayer of functional materials in order to provide them with new structural and functional features has developed into a popular research area for bionanotechnology researchers. In contrast to genetic manipulation techniques, here the functionality of a cell is modified simply by attaching polymers or nanoparticles to the cell's surface. A recent Perspective paper covers the most interesting and promising work in this area and presents an outlook the major potential future directions. The article focuses on on cell encapsulation with Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged components: polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, and proteins.

May 29th, 2012