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Showing Spotlights 1329 - 1336 of 2140 in category (newest first):

 

Ten things you should know about nanotechnology

nanotechnology_productsSometimes we get bombarded with emails from people who are new to the field about certain aspects of nanotechnology - can it cure cancer? Where can I buy nanobots? What is a nanomaterial? Is nanotechnology dangerous? And so forth. You get the idea. The question asked most often is simply this: 'What is nanotechnology?' That's why we have decided to add a new segment to our Nanowerk website that we call 'Ten things you should know about nanotechnology'. What we have been trying to do here is to provide a brief overview of some important aspects and issues and answer some of the basic questions on nanotechnologies. Of course, there is lots of important information that we omitted. But we feel that, if you are new to nanotechnology, this is a good point to start.

Posted: Aug 20th, 2009

DNA nanotechnology in computers knocks down another roadblock

dna_origamiDNA origami, tiny shapes and patterns self-assembled from DNA, have been heralded as a potential breakthrough for the creation of nanoscale circuits and devices. One roadblock to their use has been that they are made in solution, and they stick randomly to surfaces - like a deck of playing cards thrown onto a floor. Random arrangements of DNA origami are not very useful; if they carry electronic circuits for example, they are difficult to find and 'wire-up' into larger circuits. A collaboration between Caltech and IBM research Almaden has found a way to position and orient DNA origami on surfaces by creating sticky patches in the shape of origami - as a demonstration they positioned and aligned triangular DNA origami on triangular sticky patches. This success knocks down one of the major roadblocks for the use of DNA origami in computer nanotechnology.

Posted: Aug 18th, 2009

Rewritable photonic paper

photonic_paperPhotonic crystals are very suitable for fabricating sensor devices because the optical signals of these responsive materials are tightly coupled with various external stimuli and modulations. They could also play a significant role on the way to all-optical devices in communication and information technology - they form a basis material for the future realization of optical components and circuits, and maybe even complex optical circuits or optical computers. One application area that has seen a lot of activity recently is photonic paper and ink. One advantage of photonic papers and displays is that they are brilliant and free of glare in sunlight, which are superior to the characteristics of other emissive display technologies for outdoor usage such as advertising billboards. Another advantage is that, for recording purposes, the structural colors of photonic paper are usually more durable than traditional pigments and dyes. However, there are still a number of issues and problems that prevent the practical applications of the photonic crystal based materials. Researchers in California have now addressed some of them by reporting a new type of rewritable photonic paper on which a durable ink mark can be written or erased by introducing or removing a hygroscopic salt in the surface layer of the paper.

Posted: Aug 17th, 2009

DNA-encasing increases carbon nanotubes' tumor killing power

dna-encased_carbon_nanotubeVarious forms of hyperthermia - a form of cancer treatment with elevated temperature in the range of 41-45C - have been intensively developed for the past few decades to provide cancer clinics with more effective and advanced cancer therapy techniques. The recent use of nanomaterials has shown promising for developing more effective hyperthermia agents. While most nanomedical hyperthermia research is conducted with various nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes are also of interest in these thermal ablation applications. So far, however, the utility of carbon nanotubes for in vivo use has been limited by self-association - i.e. they stick to each other. A new study has now demonstrated that DNA-encasement of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) results in well-dispersed, single MWCNTs that are soluble in water and that display enhanced heat production efficiency relative to non-DNA-encased MWCNTs.

Posted: Aug 13th, 2009

Towards electronic-based single-molecule DNA sequencing

single-stranded_dna_moleculeIt its more than 25 years of existence, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy has predominantly brought us extremely detailed images of matter at the molecular and atomic level. The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is a non-optical microscope that scans an electrical probe over a surface to be imaged to detect a weak electric current flowing between the tip and the surface. It allows scientists to visualize regions of high electron density and hence infer the position of individual atoms and molecules on the surface of a lattice. Now, researchers in Japan have managed to partially sequence a single DNA molecule with a STM - a significant step towards the realization of electronic-based single-molecule DNA sequencing.

Posted: Aug 12th, 2009

Bio-interface nanosensor visually reports damage to a material

FRET_nanosensorThe term bio-interface describes the boundary between synthetic materials such as plastics, and biological systems. This rapidly growing research area, where biology and material sciences overlap, is creating new opportunities for the design, synthesis, and optimization of biologically-enabled and biologically-inspired materials. It involves manufacturing and characterization of functional surfaces for specific interactions with bio-systems and studies of the molecular and kinetic processes occurring at such interfaces, ranging from small molecule and biomolecular interactions, to cell adhesion, differentiation and tissue formation at the interface. For example, the incorporation of proteins into polymers can result in hybrid materials that combine the properties of the polymer as a cost-effective and easy to process material with the highly evolved biological functionality of the protein, enabling new concepts for construction of sensors and biomedical materials. While researchers so far have been focusing on altering the properties of a polymer by adding the functionality of a biomolecule, a group in California has now demonstrated the reverse situation, where changes in the polymer can alter the properties of the protein.

Posted: Aug 11th, 2009

Improving solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured electrolyte layers

cracked_sol_coatingIn today's Spotlight we take a look at a specific example of the challenges researchers face in improving fuel cell technology and the important role that modern laboratory instruments such as electron microscopes play in their work. Fuel cells have gained a lot of attention because they provide a potential solution to our addiction to fossil fuels. Energy production from oil, coal and gas is an extremely polluting, not to mention wasteful, process that consists of heat extraction from fuel by burning it, conversion of that heat to mechanical energy, and transformation of that mechanical energy into electrical energy. In contrast, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert a fuel's chemical energy directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and without combustion (although fuel cells operate similar to batteries, an important difference is that batteries store energy, while fuel cells can produce electricity continuously as long as fuel and air are supplied).

Posted: Aug 6th, 2009

Textured network devices to solve fundamental problems with CNT nanoelectronics

carbon_nanotube_networkThe degree of mobility of a semiconductor, i.e. how well it conducts, is crucial to the effectiveness of nanoelectronic devices. Mobility determines the carrier velocity, and hence switching speed, in FETs. Researchers have determined that the theoretical mobility of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube is about 1000 times higher than any other known semiconductor. However, practical applications would require massive manufacturing of large scale nanoelectronic devices. Despite progress being made with integrating individual nanotubes in lab environments, many of today's nanomanufacturing techniques for nanoelectronic devices rely on the use of 'carbon nanotube network films' comprised of multiple carbon nanotubes. The major problem here is that the electronic properties of CNT network films are usually very poor. Researchers in South Korea have now developed a powerful strategy to solve these fundamental problems simply by controlling the connectivity of nanotube/nanowire networks.

Posted: Aug 4th, 2009