Cells are naturally surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). The matrix supports and guides cellular behavior and its vital functions, including migration, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation with the help of chemical and physical signals. Therefore, the designing of internal pores and controlling external dimensions of the scaffold with controlled structure is one of the most important effective parameters on the performance of tissue engineering scaffolds used in the treatment of bone damages to guide cellular behavior in interaction with ECM.
In this research, nanocomposite scaffolds with controlled pore structure were produced through indirect three-dimensional printing method. The pores contained various nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide and bioactive glass in micrometric and nanometric size. Growth kinetics of bone tissue was investigated on the product through in-vitro tests. To this end, the sacrificial cast was made with three dimensional structures and its surface was coated with paraffin.
Results of the research showed that the effective interface of particles and cells increase as nanoparticles are added to the polymeric bed due to the high tendency of nanoparticles to accumulate in the surface. Moreover, the nanoparticles affect cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation by creating nanotopography, increasing the coarseness and surface roughness.