Engineering nanomaterials to deliver precise treatments for heart disease

(Nanowerk News) Northwestern University researchers have demonstrated an enhanced approach to using nanomaterials to target inflammatory cells involved in atherosclerosis. The findings, published in the journal ACS Nano ("Tailoring Nanostructure Morphology for Enhanced Targeting of Dendritic Cells in Atherosclerosis"), could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease.
Tailoring Nanostructure Morphology for Enhanced Targeting of Dendritic Cells in Atherosclerosis
Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system. (© ACS)
The study was led by Evan Scott, assistant professor of biomedical engineering in Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering and a member of the Simpson Querrey Institute for BioNanotechnology. Edward Thorp, assistant professor of pathology in the Feinberg School of Medicine, was a co-author of the paper.
Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries due to a buildup of plaque, is a chronic inflammatory condition with limited therapies. As such, there’s been much interest in developing novel nanomaterials that might directly target key immune cells associated with atherosclerosis, and serve as platforms for diagnostic imaging and more precise delivery of treatment.
In the current study, a team of scientists demonstrated for the first time that tweaking the nanostructure morphology — aspects of the material’s form, shape and size — while maintaining the same surface chemistry led to enhanced targeting of dendritic cells, a cell population that plays a role in atherosclerosis, as well as a variety of other pathologies.
Specifically, under the investigators’ mouse model, polymersomes — a type of artificial vesicle in a sphere shape — were found to be significantly more efficient at targeting dendritic cells in atherosclerotic lesions, compared to two other structures studied.
The findings have important indications for the design of future nanomaterials, underscoring the idea that morphology can be modified to improve targeting in drug delivery.
Source: By Anna Williams, Northwestern University