This Timeline outlines important events related to nanotechnology policy and regulation in Canada, Australia, the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States with an emphasis on developments since 2000.
Protons and neutrons are the basic constituents of atomic nuclei. Are they distributed homogeneously, or perhaps in quartets consisting of two protons and two neutrons? Physicists have recently presented an idea how this issue may be investigated in future experiments.
The first research program is aimed at so-called '7 nanometer and beyond' silicon technology that will address serious physical challenges that are threatening current semiconductor scaling techniques and will impede the ability to manufacture such chips. The second is focused on developing alternative technologies for post-silicon era chips using entirely different approaches, which IBM scientists and other experts say are required because of the physical limitations of silicon based semiconductors.
The method is able to drastically accelerate the development of materials that have a friction coefficient suited to the purpose of use, such as low-friction materials for reducing energy loss and high-friction materials required for high-performance brakes.
Researchers have developed a new methodology that can easily and precisely control the timing of and the structure as well as functions obtained in self-assembly of conjugated molecules, which is a key technology in the field of organic electronics materials.
Researchers have caught a central step of photosynthesis in action for the first time. The team used the world's most powerful X-ray flashlight to record still frames of a molecular complex called photosystem II as it splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, a process that maintains the oxygen in earth's atmosphere.
Scientists explore the dynamics of correlated quantum systems. What does it mean for objects to interact locally versus globally? How do local and global interactions translate into larger, increasingly connected networks? How fast can certain entanglement patterns form?
Using high-brilliance X-rays, researchers track the process that fuel cells use to produce electricity, knowledge that will help make large-scale alternative energy power systems more practical and reliable.
Chemists have made a decisive step towards more cost-efficient regenerative fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. They developed a new type of catalyst on the basis of carbon, which can facilitate two opposite reactions: electrolysis of water and combustion of hydrogen with oxygen.
This is the first demonstration, combining experiment and theory, that the interaction of the carbon atoms with a metal substrate stabilizes the low coordinated carbon edge atoms. In models for the growth of graphene on metal substrates, such low coordinated atoms at the growing edge play a special role. These results, which demonstrate such stability, will play a significant role in further development of these models and will help guide future strategies to grow graphene nanostructures with atomic scale control of edge structure.
With a chemical 'trick', scientists have succeeded in isolating a stable gold carbene complex. They are the first to have created the basis for directly examining the otherwise unstable gold-carbon double bond.