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Posted: Nov 04, 2014

Artificial nanoparticles a possible alternative to antibiotics

(Nanowerk News) Ever since the development of penicillin almost 90 years ago, antibiotics have remained the gold standard in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the WHO has repeatedly warned of a growing emergence of bacteria that develop antibiotic resistance. Once antibiotics do no longer protect from bacterial infection, a mere pneumonia might be fatal. Alternative therapeutic concepts which lead to the elimination of bacteria, but do not promote resistance are still lacking.
A team of international scientists has tested a novel substance, which has been developed by Eduard Babiychuk and Annette Draeger from the Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern in Switzerland ("Engineered liposomes sequester bacterial exotoxins and protect from severe invasive infections in mice").
This compound constitutes a novel approach for the treatment of bacterial infections: the scientists engineered artificial nanoparticles made of lipids, "liposomes" that closely resemble the membrane of host cells. These liposomes act as decoys for bacterial toxins and so are able to sequester and neutralize them. Without toxins, the bacteria are rendered defenseless and can be eliminated by the cells of the host's own immune system.
Artificial bait for bac terial toxins
In clinical medicine, liposomes are used to deliver specific medication into the body of patients.
Here, the Bernese scientists have created liposomes which attract bacterial toxins and so protect host cells from a dangerous toxin attack. "We have made an irresistible bait for bacterial toxins. The toxins are fatally attracted to the liposomes, and once they are attached, they can be eliminated easily without danger for the host cells", says Eduard Babiychuk who directed the study.
"Since the bacteria are not targeted directly, the liposomes do not promote the development of bacterial resistance", adds Annette Draeger. Mice which were treated with the liposomes after experimental, fatal septicemia survived without additional antibiotic therapy.
The Technology transfer organisation of the Universities of Bern, Basel and Zurich "Unitectra" has filed a patent for this compound. The liposomal treatment is being developed as a new medicine named "CAL02" by LASCCO SA, a Geneva-based biomedical comp any specialized in innovative technologies for diagnostics and therapeutics. The first clinical study, conducted on patients suffering from severe streptococcal pneumonia is scheduled for 2015.
Source: University of Bern
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