|Posted: Sep 13, 2012
Nanotechnology in construction
(Nanowerk Spotlight) Nanotechnology and nanomaterials offer interesting new opportunities in the construction industry and architecture, for example through the development of very durable, long-lived and at the same time extremely lightweight construction materials. Novel insulation materials with very good insulation values are already available on the market, enable a thermal rehabilitation of buildings in which conventional insulation is not possible, and can help to improve energy efficiency. A wide range of methods for the treatment of surfaces is also available, including glass, masonry, wood or metal; the goal is to improve functionalities as well as extend the lifetime of the materials. Such surface coatings also promise to conserve resources, for example water, energy and cleaning agents.
Although the research sector has been reporting intensively about new nanotechnological developments, the reality shows that “nano-products” in the construction industry continue to play a subordinate role and currently merely occupy niche markets. The construction business is considered to be conservative, and innovations often have a difficult time breaking into the market1.
One of the main reasons for this is the continued
high prices. Currently, nanomaterials
– and therefore “nano-products” – are
still considerably more expensive than the
conventional alternatives due to the required
production technology2. Construction
materials are generally used in large
amounts: small price differences can enormously
increase overall costs when considering
the total volume of a building or other
structure. Moreover, the technical performance
of new products must first be
demonstrated2. In buildings, the calculated
time spans are in the range of 20 to 30
years, making it difficult for example to apply
a coating with a durability of only 1 to
3 years1. Longer-term, practical experience
with many nano-products is still lacking,
and we simply know too little about their
product life. Accordingly, the construction
industry for the time being prefers to rely
on proven, conventional products.
Our state of knowledge about nanotechnological
applications and products, their
availability and their performance in the
construction industry is currently very limited.
A survey conducted in 2009 in the European
construction sector showed that most respondents (∼75%) were unaware of whether they were working with “nanoproducts” or not2. This is also partly because there is no mandatory labeling of nanomaterials in building materials: the prefix “nano” – like in many other branches – is used in advertising a product only if the manufacturers have justified hopes of improved sales. Often, it is not evident to users whether a nano-product actually contains nanomaterials, what nanomaterials might be involved and in what amounts they may be present.
Not all products that feature the term “nano” actually contain nanomaterials. Often, the term “nano” merely refers to structures in the nano size range, for example the pore size of a particular material, or to the size of structures that form when a mortar hardens. The use of the designation “nano” in product claims and advertising has again been declining in recent years. This is because information about potential environmental or health risks of nanomaterials, in particular via the media, has led to more cautious buying patterns.
This article provides an overview of nanotechnological applications and products in the construction industry and focuses on the question of potential environmental and health risks that these products may entail.
Fields of Application and Products
“Nano-products” in the construction industry
are currently concentrated in four sectors:
(1) cement-bound construction materials, (2)
noise reduction and thermal insulation or
temperature regulation, (3) surface coatings
to improve the functionality of various materials,
as well as (4) fire protection. Based
on manufacturer’s specifications, the German
Trade Association for the Construction
Industry (deutsche Berufsgenossenschaft der
Bauwirtschaft; BG Bau) has compiled a list
of construction and cleaning products that
advertise under the heading “nano” or that
use nanotechnological effects. The list also
contains information about whether the
properties of the product can be attributed
to the addition of nanoparticles or nanostructures.
Based on the cut-off date January 19, 2012, the list contains 63 products from the
sector cement-bound construction materials
(mortar, cement, roofing tiles), paints, varnishes
and other products designed to coat
1. Cement-bound construction materials
a. Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC)
Concrete is a type of artificial stone made
of cement, aggregate materials (sand, gravel,
grit) and water. More than ten billion tons
of concrete are produced annually all over
the world every year, making it, volume-wise,
the world’s largest human-produced commodity
and by far the most important construction
material in the construction industry4.
The strength of concrete can be attributed
to the minute crystal needles (calcium
silicate hydrates), that solidly interlink with
each other during the hardening process.
Electron microscopes can be used to depict
and study the structures down to the nanoscale,
including analyzing the correlation between
the nanostructure of a construction
material and its properties. This enables a
target-oriented optimization of construction
materials for a particular application5. Over
the last few years, this has led to new developments
and material improvements.
Nanoscale binders can give concrete, as the conventional
construction material, new properties
with regard to workability, strength and
durability. Adding silicon dioxide nanoparticles
fills the pores in the concrete, making
it denser and harder. Ultra high performance/
high-strength concrete also contains
steel fibers, which improve tensile strength.
These types of concrete attain a steel-like
compressive strength of over 200 N/mm2.
Polymer additives (for example artificial resins)
help liquefy and stabilize the cement suspension,
which is used to develop self-compacting
concretes4. The high strength and
density of UHCP enables especially lightweight
and delicate constructions such as
bridges. The Gärtnerplatzbrücke6, a bridge
inaugurated in 2007 over the Fulda River in
Kassel (Germany), was the first larger bridge
in Germany to use ultra high performance
concrete for the prefabricated elements
(Fig. 1). In addition, the concrete elements
were joined with a novel bonding technique7.
|Figure 1: The Gärtnerplatzbrücke across the Fulda in Kassel River, made of ultra high performance concrete. (Source: www.gaertnerplatzbruecke.de)
Another example is the Wild-Brücke8 in Völkermarkt (Carinthia, Austria), a bridge inaugurated in October 2010 and worldwide the first medium-sized road bridge whose main support structure was made of UHCP9.
b. Repair mortar for concrete repair work
External influences, for example salty, moist
air, frost, wind and rain, along with aging
and heavy loads, damage concrete structures
by creating cracks as well as chipping
and flaking-off at the surface. These burden
the construction industry with high costs.
Novel repair mortars, which according to the
manufacturer’s specifications are based on
nanotechnology, are characterized by improved
technical properties such as greater
density, tensile bending- and compressive
strength as well as frost resistance. They are
also said to help minimize damage to concrete.
Moreover, the low weight and the simple
workability promise additional advantages
for the user. The manufacturers of such
repair mortars emphasize that the improved
properties of their products are not the result
of added nanoparticles but rather that
a detailed understanding of cement hydration10
represents the basis for the improved
quality and density of the nanostructures in
the cement paste11.
c. Photocatalytically active concrete products and coatings
Under the influence of (UV)-light and water (humidity), nanoscale titanium dioxide accelerates chemical reactions. This produces oxygen radicals that break down and decompose organic material. This process, known
as photocatalysis, is applied in the construction
industry and architecture to create “selfcleaning”
building materials and to break
down air pollutants. When worked into cement
or applied in a layer on concrete, the
photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 helps decompose
dirt composed of organic matter,
which is then washed off when it rains12. Externally,
the buildings maintain their original
appearance for a longer period. An example
is the “Jubilee Church” in Rome, which
was constructed in 2003 (Fig. 2) and whose
white concrete shows no signs of soiling even
|Figure 2: The “Jubilee Church” in Rome, built with photocatalytically active, self-cleaning concrete made by the company Italcementi. (Source: quartiermagazin.com)
Air purification is a further area of application
of photocatalytically active concrete products.
In metropolitan areas, the high levels of nitrogen
oxides from vehicular traffic represent
a major problem. Concrete products
such as roof and paving stones with photocatalytic
TiO2 are designed to improve air
quality by converting nitrogen oxides from
the surrounding air into nitrate14. A further
potential application lies in noise-reducing
walls or road surfaces. In the PICADA project
(Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Applications
for Depollution Assessment)15,
funded by the EU, the effectiveness of photocatalytically
active cement mortar was investigated
with an experimental setup. Here,
a 40-80% reduction in nitrogen oxide was
recorded16. Under real-life conditions, the
effectiveness of noise-protection walls with
a photocatalytic coating was studied in The
Netherlands between 2005 and 2009 along
autobahn test stretches17. No improvement
in air quality through reduced nitrogen oxides
could be demonstrated. A potential explanation
for this result could be, among others,
the too short contact between the air and
the photocatalytically active coating.
framework of the EU research project “PhotoPAQ”,
running until 2013, the effectiveness
of such coatings will be studied on a stretch
of a road tunnel in Brussels18. Published results
are not yet available. Currently, the special
cement with nano-TiO2 is still considerably
more expensive than conventional cement.
A careful consideration of costs and
benefits is therefore required, as are additional
studies on the potentially hazardous
byproducts of the photocatalytic degradation
process19. Based on the currently available
data, the prevention of pollutant emissions
at the source would be more effective
than expensive photocatalytic concrete products
d. Ground stabilization in road construction
In order to protect a road from frost damage,
the roadbed must be properly prepared.
Novel polymer dispersions20 with nanoscale
silicon dioxide, which is mixed into the cement,
are designed to extend the durability
of roads while at the same time promising
improved workability21. Like in ultra high
performance concrete, the SiO2-nanopasrticles
fill out the interspaces of the concrete
particles, yielding a particularly uniform and
dense concrete matrix. Moreover, the polymers
in the dispersion are also water repellent.
This decreases the water absorption capacity
of the road foundation and improves
frost resistance. These novel additives promise
additional advantages: locally available
materials (sand, clay or excavated earth) can
be used to produce the roadbed, whereby
less material needs to be transported. The
setting process of binding agents (for example
cement) and the polymer additive can
take place using either freshwater and saltwater,
and processing is possible even at
temperatures below -10° C. According to the
manufacturer, these nanopolymer dispersions
are also suitable for sealing- and baselayers
in hydraulic engineering projects and
sewer canal construction, as well as in dam
and landfill site construction.
2. Thermal insulation and noise reduction, temperature regulation
One of the greatest challenges in the construction
sector is the thermal renovation of
existing residential and industrial buildings.
Here, applying novel insulation materials
based on nanotechnology could make an
important contribution4. In the past, energy
consumption has increased steadily. In Austria
the value in 2009 was almost 80% higher
than that in 1970. In private households,
about 30% of the energy is used for space
heating22. This points to a great potential for
energy savings here. The Austrian Energy efficiency
Action Plan23 to implement the EUEnergy
Efficiency and Energy Services Directive
specifies that 9% of the annual average
energy consumption should be cut by 17.5.
2018 at the latest. The measures to achieve
this target include boosting the renovation
rate in residential buildings and the thermal
renovation of all post-war buildings (1950-
1980) as well as promoting low-energy and
passive house standards.
Innovations attributable to nanotechnology
also enable thermally insulating buildings in
which a conventional, approximately 20cm-thick
exterior insulation is not possible (for
example in older buildings with structured facade)
and thereby achieve very good insulation
Aerogel is an especially lightweight material
that can for example be produced from
silica. The gel is dried in a special process,
yielding a type of solid foam that consists of
more than 95% air. Such silica aerogels
were first produced back in the 1930s24. The
pores of this material measure only a few
nanometers, explaining the brand name Nanogel®. The thermal conductivity of a material
with pores on the nano-scale is minimal
because only a few gas molecules have
space in the pores, thus reducing the heat
transfer from one gas particle to another.
Aerogel holds 15 entries in the Guinness
Book of records, among others as the “best
insulator” and “lightest solid”. Combining
Aerogel and stone wool yields so-called
Aerowolle®, which is incorporated into thin
plasterboard for interior insulation25. Aerogel
can also be filled in between two window
glass panes26. Such glazing successfully
blocks infrared radiation as well as noise.
Nonetheless, Aerogel is not transparent,
yielding a “translucent glass” effect. An insulating
plaster with Aerogel27 is currently under
development and is expected to be on
the market in 2013.
b. Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP)
The core of these special insulation panels
consists of nanoscale silica, graphite or silicon
carbide in a vacuum and is surrounded
by a particularly dense and stable laminated
sheet made of synthetic material and
aluminum24. By removing the heat-conducting
air, these only 2-4-cm-thick panels attain
especially high insulation values that are comparable
with conventional insulation materials
such as approx. 20-cm-thick polystyrene
panels. Such VIPs can be used both indoors
and outdoors, for example for walls, roofing and terraces, but also in cooling units28. VIPs,
however, are relatively sensitive because mechanical
damage can destroy the vacuum.
This makes cutting to size impossible. Moreover,
the costs are currently still high.
c. Latent heat storage (“Phase Change Materials”, PCM) – Temperature regulation
In summer, very high temperatures can be
reached in loft conversions or in buildings
that were erected using lightweight technology.
This can be countered with plastering,
bricks, concrete or clay panels with incorporated
PCM that are produced based on paraffin
waxes. In this approach, paraffin spherules
with diameters in the micro- or nanometer
scale are enclosed in a stable coating of plastic
or acrylic glass. When the wax melts at
higher temperatures, it extracts heat energy
from the surroundings though the phase
shift from solid to liquid. When the temperature
drops again, for example at night, the
wax becomes solid again and releases this
heat energy. Construction materials with PCM
are suitable for temperature regulation in interiors
and, optimally, can even entirely replace
the need for air conditioning29.
d. Electrochromic windows with nanocoatings
Electrochromic windows consist of two glass
panes (sandwich pane) with an electrically
conductive, transparent coating. The interspace
contains a sol-gel-layer30 of tungsten
trioxide. Applying a small electric current (up
to 3 V) turns this nano-structured coating
blue and reduces the passage of sunlight
through the laminated pane31. The light and
heat input into a room can be individually
controlled with such electrochromic panes.
The switching time depends on the size of
the windows and can be between three and
five minutes, which might be considered a
disadvantage. As opposed to conventional
electrochromic window panes, no permanent
power supply is required.
3. Surface coatings
In the construction sector, a wealth of nanotechnology-based products that can functionalize various surfaces are already on the market. The focus is on dirt- and water-repellent along with “self-cleaning” coatings. These include facade paints, window panes, roof tiles, surface protection for construction materials against water penetration, mosses, algae or mold, and “anti-graffiti” or “anti- fingerprint” coatings.
4. Fire protection
Special fire-resistant glass consists of two
glass panes with an only 3-mm-thin filling of
nanoscale SiO2, which foams in the event
of a fire. Such panes can withstand a continuous
fire of more than 1000 °C for up to
120 minutes; they have the additional advantage
of being very light and thin. The
coating itself is hardly visible. Beyond applications
in buildings, these panes are also
used for ship windows and portholes. Using
nano-SiO2, lightweight sandwich panels
of straw and hemp, such as those used
in trade fair construction, can be coated and
made fire resistant. Despite the glass-like
coating, the panels are diffusible and, at the
end of their useful life, can be normally shredded
and disposed of1.
Nano-structured silicate particles (so-called
“nano-clay”) can be incorporated in plastics
to optimize their flame-retardant properties
and their heat resistance. Such nanocomposite
materials are for example applied
in producing cable insulation or covers (e.g.
fuse boxes, sockets) in interior finishings4.
5. Applications currently under development
Based on their special properties32, carbon
nanotubes (CNTs) are of special interest in
the development of reinforced concrete.
Adding only 1% by weight of CNTs can improve
the mechanical properties. In particular,
multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) can increase
the compressive and tensile strength.
Technical challenges still remain to be met
in the uniform incorporation of CNTs into the
concrete matrix (clumping of CNTs, poor
binding of CNTs with the matrix). Up until
now, these problems, along with the ongoing
high production costs and currently unpredictable
health risks of CNTs have hindered
the introduction of a concrete product
with CNTs. Sensors that are based on
devices, NEMS) are also under research and
development. These can be implanted in
concrete and can serve in quality control and
help monitor durability. In the future, such
sensors will help measure the density and
viscosity of the concrete along with parameters
that influence durability (e.g. temperature,
moisture, pH, vibrations)33.
In principle, there are two exposure pathways of end users to nanomaterials from a “nanoconstruction product”2:
1. When applying a ready-to-use product (for example a facade paint) or a product that is admixed to another material on site (e.g. an additive for concrete);
2. During the destructive treatment of a “nano- product”, for example drilling, sanding or milling.
Both workers as well as private end users can
come into contact with nanomaterials when
using a “nano-construction product” and must
therefore be protected against potential health
hazards. This is guaranteed in the employee
protection sector by legal regulations and
corresponding risk management measures
in businesses or companies34. Especially in
the case of end users, however, information
on which nanomaterial is present in which
form and concentration in a product is often
missing. According to the EU-Directive
on the Classification, Labeling and Packaging
of Substances and Mixtures (CLP-Directive35),
manufacturers are not obliged to inform
their customers that their product contains
nanomaterials. One possibility would
be a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), but
in the case of products that come with an
MSDS, it is up to the manufacturer to decide
whether such health and safety information
about an incorporated nanomaterial is included2.
Accordingly, the information transmission
along the entire value chain – from
the manufacturer of a product containing
nanomaterials to the end user – is generally
According to our present state of knowledge,
if a nanomaterial is permanently bound in
a matrix, such as in concrete or in an insulation
material, then the probability of an exposure
to that nanomaterial is very low or
non-existent, as long as the product is not
destructively treated. Even in the latter case,
however, studies show that working nanocomposite
materials with sandpaper does
not lead to a release of nanoparticulate components36.
One study showed that drilling
through concrete with a nano-additive resulted
in higher nanoparticle concentrations
in the ambient air than in the case of conventional
concrete. Unfortunately, the currently
available particle size measurement
instruments can only determine the number
of particles per unit volume of air: no characterization
of the particles is possible, and
therefore the composition and source of the
measured particle concentrations cannot be
determined. The authors of the study suspect that the motor of the drill emits more nanoparticles
when penetrating the denser and
harder nano-concrete due to the higher drilling
intensity37. At any rate, the operation of
electric appliances and heating units, as well
as combustion processes, probably release
a higher concentration of nanoparticles.
When a nano-coating is sprayed or mortar
mixed at a construction site, workers are exposed
to a potential health threat by inhaling
dust or minute liquid droplets (aerosols).
The above-mentioned study also examined
workplace exposure when handling dusty
and liquid materials. Mixing mortar led to
short-term peak nanoparticle concentrations
in the air. These values, however, were dependent
on the weather conditions: considerably
lower concentrations were measured
under strong winds. A somewhat higher nanoparticle
concentration was recorded when
spraying a coating containing nano-TiO2, although
this could potentially also be attributed
to the emissions of the motor of the
spraying machine. The result of the above
workplace studies lead to the conclusion that
the contribution of the machines used (mixing
machines, drills, diesel engines, etc.) –
as well as cigarette smoke – contribute more
to the nanoparticle concentration in the ambient
air than the used “nano-construction
In the Netherlands, so-called “nano-
reference values” were introduced in a
precautionary approach due to the lack of
exposure limits for nanomaterials at the
workplace. In the above study, these reference
values were not exceeded at any of the
investigated workplace situations. Accordingly,
no additional nano-specific safety measures
were deemed necessary37.
To avoid a potential health threat to employees
though nanomaterials, European manufacturers
of nanomaterials, in a precautionary
approach, have for some time been pursuing
a preventive policy. One example is
special codes of conduct38. Since particularly
the inhalation of nanoparticles represents
a potential health hazard39, measures were
set to prevent this. Thus, most nanomaterials
are produced in liquid form as suspensions
or solutions, or in a sealed environment in
order to minimize the exposure risk. Moreover,
most nanoparticulate additives are also
marketed by the product manufacturers
in liquid form. If this is not possible for technical
reasons, such as in the case of silica
dust for ultra high performance concrete, then
other solutions are sought. One example is
the use of water-soluble packaging materials
that do not impact the product properties
of the concrete2. Certain branches, such
as the paint and varnish industry, have also
compiled special operational guides on the
safe use of nanomaterials40.
Environmental advantages and threats
The potential environmental advantages of
“nano-products” along with the potential environmental
threats through nanomaterials
have already been treated in two Nano Trust
Dossiers (Nr. 026en und 027en), so this issue
will be treated here only in brief.
Environmental advantages of construction
products containing nanomaterials or of
products based on nanotechnology are expected
especially in the sectors energy savings
and conservation of resources. Novel
insulation materials can help to reduce the
energy demand for heating and cooling of
residential buildings and office space and
can also be applied in cases where conventional
insulation is not possible. Special nano-
coatings can increase the lifespan of materials
or, as in the case of “self-cleaning”
coatings, can help reduce the cleaning effort
and therefore reduce the demand for energy,
water and cleaning agents. For most
“nano-construction products”, however, no
comprehensive life cycle analyses or comparative
ecobalance evaluations (versus conventional
building material) are available,
so that the actual environmental advantages
cannot be quantified.
As “nano-construction products” currently
play only a subordinate role on the market,
the present environmental threat through
nanomaterials appears to be low. Nonetheless,
virtually no data are available on exposure,
so that no comprehensive risk assessment
can currently be made for any nanomaterial.
Wastes and wastewater represent
the main potential sources of input into
the environment. In the case of “nanoconstruction
products”, this would be the
dumping of building rubble with nanomaterials
or an improper disposal of paints or
varnishes via the sewer system. Studies have
shown that nanoparticulate TiO2 from facade
paints can leach out and enter the environment.
To date, no specific regulations
govern the disposal or the recycling of construction
products containing nanomaterials.
For certain nanomaterials, for example nano-
TiO2 or nanosilver, laboratory studies
have shown toxicological effects in the environment.
Nonetheless, the actual input of
these materials into the environment and
their behavior in natural ecosystems remains
In the research and development sectors, great efforts are being undertaken to improve
material properties and introduce new nanotechnology-based products that could be of interest
to the construction industry. This stands in contrast to the conventional behavior of
the construction industry so that, in reality, “nano-construction products” still play a very
subordinate role in this business. Greater acceptance can only be expected when such products
become available at competitive process and their technical behavior is sufficiently substantiated.
Determining the environmental and health threats of construction products with
nanomaterials will require additional studies under realistic conditions. Equally important
is the development and adaptation of measuring instruments to analyze the workplace and
Notes and References
1 Leydecker, Sylvia, 2008, Nanomaterialien in Architektur, Innenarchitektur und Design: Birkhäuser Verlag
2 Van Broekhuizen, Fleur/Van Broekhuizen, Pieter,
2009, Nanoprodukte im europäischen Baugewerbe – Aktueller Sachstand 2009 (pdf). Zusammenfassung, im Auftrag von: FIEC EFBH, November 2009: IVAM UvA BV
3 Nanorama Bau
4 Luther, Wolfgang, 2008, Einsatz von Nanotechnologien in Architektur und Bauwesen (pdf), commissioned by: Hessisches Ministerium für Wirtschaft Verkehr und Landesentwicklung, Nr. Band 7 der Schriftreihe der Aktionlinie Hessen Nanotech: HA Hessen Agentur
5 Flatz, Christian, 2009, Nanostruktur am Bau (pdf), zukunft forschung – Magazin für Wissenschaft und Forschung der Universität Innsbruck, 01/09, 18
7 Juschkus, Ute, 2010, Nanotechnologie und Ultra Performance Concrete (UHPC), RKW-Fachinfo – Nanotechnologie am Bau (1), 4-6
9 WILD-Brücke – UHCP in der Praxis als Ergebnis der Forschung. TU Graz
10 Cement hydration is the chemical process behind the hardening of cement after mixing with water, involving the formation of hydrated calcsilcates, aluminates and ferrites in connection with hydrated gel masses, whereby the developing crystals penetrate each other and are fused by the gel masses. (source: Lexikon/Glossar Gebäudetechnik).
11 Product example: www.emaco-nanocrete.com/german/produkte.html.
12 See also NanoTrust Dossier 020en.
13 Building small: Nanotechnology makes inroads in the construction industry. Chemical & Engineering News, June 2011
14 For additional information and products see for example Heidelberg Cement.
15 PICADA Project (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Applications for Depollution Assessment).
16 Bolte, Gerd (HeidelbergCement Technology Center), 2009, Innovative building materials – reduction of pollutants with TioCem. ZKG international, Nr. 1/2009
17 Dutch Air Quality Innovation Programme (pdf)
18 Bessere Luft durch neue Oberflächen? Troposphärenforscher untersuchen Spezialbeschichtungen. Informationsdienst Wissenschaft.
Project PhotoPAQ (Demonstration of Photocatalytic Remediation Processes on Air Quality).
19 Juschkus, Ute, 2010, Superzwerg TiO2 – Umweltschutz mit Nanotechnologie, RKW-Fachinfo – Nanotechnologie am Bau (1), 9-10
20 Polymer dispersions are a mixture of plastic particles in water.
21 For further information see: www.nanosky.com/de/nanosky_nts.html.
23 Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit, 2007, 1. Energieeffizienzaktionsplan der Republik Österreich gemäß EU-Richtlinie 2006/32/EG
24 Juschkus, Ute, 2010, Zwergenträume – Nanoschäume. Energieeffizientes Bauen mit Nanotechnologie, RKW-Fachinfo – Nanotechnologie am Bau (1), 7-9
25 Aerowolle® of the company Rockwool
26 See for example Okagel® produced by the company Okalux.
27 Aerogel-Dämmputz isoliert historische Bauten einfach und wirksam. EMPA.
28 For product examples see the companies Vaku-Isotherm or Porextherm
29 For a product example of a micro-encapsulated PCM, see: Micronal®, BASF;
30 See NanoTrust Dossier 006en.
31 See: Blau und grau färbende Sol-Gel elektrochrome Fenster. Nanoinfo, INM Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien.
32 See NanoTrust Dossier 022en.
33 Mann, Surinder (Institute of Nanotechnology), 2006, Nanotechnology and Construction, November 2006: Nanoforum
34 For an overview on the aspects of employee protection see NanoTrust-Dossier 029en.
35 Directive (EG) Nr. 1272/2008 (pdf) of the European Parliament and the Council of 16.12.2008 on the Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Materials and Mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EWG and 1999/45/EG and amending Directive (EG) Nr. 1907/2006.
36 Wohlleben, Wendel, et al., 2011, On the Lifecycle of Nanocomposites: Comparing Released Fragments and their In-Vivo Hazards from Three Release Mechanisms and Four Nanocomposites, small (16), 2384-2395.
37 Van Broekhuizen, Pieter, et al., 2011, Use ofnanomaterials in the European construction industry and some occupational health aspects thereof, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13(2), 447-462
38 See also NanoTrust-Dossier 016en.
39 See also NanoTrust-Dossier 003en.
40 Hermann, Andreas, et al., 2009, Sichere Verwendung von Nanomaterialien in der Lack- und Farbenbranche – Ein Betriebsleitfaden (pdf), commissioned by: Verkehr und Landentwicklung Hessisches
Ministerium für Wirtschaft, Nr. Band 11 der Schriftenreihe der Aktionslinie Hessen-Nanotech, September 2009: HA Hessen Agentur GmbH
By NanoTrust, Austrian Academy of Sciences. NanoTrust Dossiers are published irregularly and contain the research results of the Institute of Technology Assessment in the framework of its research project NanoTrust. The Dossiers are made available to the public exclusively on epub.oeaw.ac.at/ita/nanotrust-dossiers.