Researchers describe building a new pathway that lets the bacterium, E. coli, feed on both sugar (glucose) and acetate, a common waste material from biomass, to make isobutyl acetate. This product can be used as the basis for flavoring agents, solvents and fuels.
Researchers have, for the first time, uncovered the complex interdependence and orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues of clostridial metabolism, providing new insights for advanced biofuel development.
The three-year clinical trial results of the retinal implant popularly known as the 'bionic eye', have proven the long-term efficacy, safety and reliability of the device that restores vision in those blinded by a rare, degenerative eye disease. The findings show that the Argus II significantly improves visual function and quality of life for people blinded by retinitis pigmentosa.
X-rays were used to measure the ultrafast response of DNA nucleobases to ultraviolet light. Researchers found that the UV excited state in the nucleobase thymine decays rapidly, harmlessly dissipating the potentially destructive UV energy.
Researchers have developed a new approach to studying the effect of multiple genetic variations on different traits. The new algorithm makes it possible to perform genetic analysis of up to 500,000 individuals - and many traits - at the same time.
In order for newly-produced secretory or membrane proteins to find their final destination, the proteins have signal-sequences connected to themselves as a form of address tag. Furthermore, they use a particle guiding them to the cell membrane. In a new study, researchers show how this particle recognizes these address tags and thus makes it possible for the proteins to be directed to the cell membrane.
The immune system must constantly adapt to its environment in order to protect a body effectively. The so-called T cells are an important example in this regard. Researchers recently examined the surface of precursors of these T cells and identified previously unknown proteins there. According to the scientists, the results could supply approaches to new therapies in the area of asthma and allergies.
Engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organ that produces antibodies and can be controlled in the lab, completely separate from a living organism. The engineered organ has implications for everything from rapid production of immune therapies to new frontiers in cancer or infectious disease research.