A team of University of Pennsylvania engineers has used a pattern of nanoantennas to develop a new way of turning infrared light into mechanical action, opening the door to more sensitive infrared cameras and more compact chemical-analysis techniques.
Innsbruck physicists led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller experimentally gained a deep insight into the nature of quantum mechanical phase transitions. They are the first scientists that simulated the competition between two rival dynamical processes at a novel type of transition between two quantum mechanical orders.
The EC-funded NanoSustain project has been developing new sustainable solutions through an investigation of the life-cycle of nanotechnology-based products, in particular the physical and chemical characteristics of materials, hazard and exposure aspects, and end-of-life disposal or recycling to determine the fate and impact of nanomaterials.
Drug developers have been using nanoparticles to encapsulate a wide range of molecules for delivery to tumors. Now, they can add a large protein complex to that list thanks to research from the laboratory of Yi Tang of the University of California at Los Angeles.
The body's immune system exists to identify and destroy foreign objects, whether they are bacteria, viruses, flecks of dirt, or splinters. Unfortunately, nanoparticles designed to deliver drugs, and implanted devices, like pacemakers or artificial joints, are just as foreign and subject to the same response. Now, however, a team of researchers has identified a 'passport' for such therapeutic devices, enabling them to get past the body's security system.
Researchers at the University of Missouri have demonstrated the ability to create a multi-layered harness nanoparticle that can safely encapsulate powerful alpha-emitting radioisotopes and target tumors. The resulting nanoparticles not only offer the possibility of delivering tumor-killing alpha emitters to tumors, but also sparing healthy tissue from radiation damage.
In the quest to develop anti-cancer vaccines that would stimulate the body to destroy tumors and keep them from recurring, researchers continually run into the same problem - the immune-stimulating proteins, known as antigens, are not interacting effectively with the key immune system cells that trigger long-lasting immune responses. Now, using a novel administration system and polymer nanoparticles, a team of investigators led by Adrien Kissenpfennig of Queen's University Belfast has shown that they can deliver anticancer antigens to dendritic cells and trigger an effective immune system response against melanoma tumors.
DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group to specific locations on a DNA strand, plays a critical role in determining which genes are active in a cell at any given time. It plays an important role in embryonic development, cell growth and reproduction, and many diseases, including cancer. Now, researchers collaborating at the Mayo Clinic and the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign have developed a novel single molecule test for detecting DNA methylation that should greatly simplify and advance the study of this important genomic process.
Engineering researchers treated thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene - a popular polymer used as a dry lubricant for machine components - with silica nanoparticles and found that the filler material significantly reduced wear of the polymer while maintaining a low level of friction.
In a new report, the Parliamentary Assembly recommends that the Council of Europe should set legal standards on nanotechnology based on the precautionary principle, but which will not hinder nanotechnology's potential beneficial use.