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Posted: Dec 06, 2011
Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system
(Nanowerk News) Evaluation of the immunomodulatory potentials of nanomaterials is essential for
developing safe and consumer-friendly nanotechnology.
interact with the immunesystem, in a beneficial or deleteriousway, but mechanistic
details about such interactions are scarce. A lack of agreed-upon guidelines for
evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) adds to the complexity of the
Various review articles have summarized the immune system interactions
of biodegradable NPs (with pharmaceutical uses), but such information is largely
lacking for nonbiodegradable NPs.
In a recent review article in WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology ("Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system")
the authors give an overview of interactions of
nonbiodegradable, persistent NPs with the immune system. Particular emphases
include key factors that shape such interactions, cell-specific responses, allergy
and immune-sensitive respiratory disorders.
They comclude that more systematic studies are needed, particularly
those controlling the characteristics of the nanomaterials
and exposing cells and/or full organisms at
low (realistic) concentrations, which would result in
only mild responses (mild inflammation, low toxicity),
to study chronic exposure situations.
huge numbers of in vivo studies, more effort should
be undertaken to use multiple cells in one culture
system, thus allowing 'natural' interactions between
Finally, establishing pertinent endpoints and
testing guidelines for immunological evaluation of
nanomaterials are desired.