Researchers developed a way to coat bacteria with polymer layers that protect them from the acids and bile salts found in the digestive tract. When the microbes reach the intestine, they attach to the intestinal lining and begin reproducing.
Scientists develop a new method that predicts the way in which proteins move to exert their biological functions. They have demonstrated that protein movement is governed by the general shape of these molecules, thereby providing new data on how proteins work - a key step for drug development.
For (probably) the first time ever, plants modified with the 'genetic scissors' CRISPR-Cas9 has been cultivated, harvested and cooked. Although the meal only fed two people, it was still the first step towards a future where science can better provide farmers and consumers across the world with healthy, beautiful and hardy plants.
Goats, sheep, and other herbivores eat many types of plants, and in the animals' guts, fungi digest the plant material. Researchers characterized several fungi involved in this digestion process and identified a large number of enzymes that work synergistically to degrade the raw biomass.