Bacteria are programmed using synthetic biology to release gas to report when they exchange DNA through horizontal gene transfer, the process by which organisms share genetic traits without a parent-to-child relationship.
Microalgae hold tremendous potential for industrial biotechnology. They are an important resource in the production of food and medications, and in many other applications. In comparison to bacteria and fungi, however, they still play only a minor role.
A multi-institution effort has resulted in a paper that details how antigen-coated membrane vesicles derived from the surface of E. coli cells protected mice from a deadly pathogen, and how that system could work against other pathogens, as well.