Researchers developed a way to coat bacteria with polymer layers that protect them from the acids and bile salts found in the digestive tract. When the microbes reach the intestine, they attach to the intestinal lining and begin reproducing.
Scientists develop a new method that predicts the way in which proteins move to exert their biological functions. They have demonstrated that protein movement is governed by the general shape of these molecules, thereby providing new data on how proteins work - a key step for drug development.
For (probably) the first time ever, plants modified with the 'genetic scissors' CRISPR-Cas9 has been cultivated, harvested and cooked. Although the meal only fed two people, it was still the first step towards a future where science can better provide farmers and consumers across the world with healthy, beautiful and hardy plants.
Goats, sheep, and other herbivores eat many types of plants, and in the animals' guts, fungi digest the plant material. Researchers characterized several fungi involved in this digestion process and identified a large number of enzymes that work synergistically to degrade the raw biomass.
Researchers have succeeded in producing cells which offer new insights into properties of the heart. They installed a molecular sensor into the cells which emits light, and not only makes the cells' electrical activity visible, but also makes it possible for the first time to quickly identify cell types.
In order for cells to function properly, cargo needs to be constantly transported from one point to another within the cell, like on a goods station. This cargo is located in or on intracellular membranes, called vesicles. These membranes have a signature, and only those with the correct signature may fuse with the membrane of another organelle into one compartment.
As for many other biomedical and biotechnology disciplines, the genome scissor CRISPR/Cas9 also opens up completely new possibilities for cancer research. Scientists have shown that mutations that act as cancer drivers can be targeted and repaired. The most relevant mutations could therefore be diagnosed faster, improving personalized therapies.