For the first time, a study has shown that residual movements continue to animate proteins inside a crystal and that this movement 'blurs"´' the structures obtained via crystallography. The study stresses that the more these residual movements are restricted, the better the crystalline order.
Today, formation of that polymer assembly requires solvents that can harm the environment, but scientists have found a 'greener' way to control the assembly of photovoltaic polymers in water using a surfactant - a detergent-like molecule--as a template.
Perovskite solar cells are cheaper to make than traditional silicon cells and their electricity conversion efficiency is improving rapidly. To be commercially viable, perovskite cells need to scale up from lab size. Researchers report a method for making perovskite cells larger while maintaining efficiency.
The quest to control and understand the intrinsic spin of electrons to advance nanoscale electronics is hampered by how hard it is to measure tiny, fast magnetic devices. Applied physicists offer a solution: using heat, instead of light, to measure magnetic systems at short length and time scales.
Inspired by a naturally occurring material found in marine mussels, researchers have created a new flame retardant to replace commercial additives that are often toxic and can accumulate over time in the environment and living animals, including humans.