New era of femtosecond laser processing of 2D nanostructures

(Nanowerk News) Laser-based technology is widely used for the development of devices based on graphene and other 2D materials. However, when laser pulses are as short as femtoseconds, new phenomena can arise in laser-matter interactions, paving the way for novel functionalities of 2D materials.
In a review published in Advanced Materials ("Ultrafast Laser Processing of 2D Materials: Novel Routes to Advanced Devices"), researchers led by Prof. Mika Pettersson from the University of Jyväskylä and Dr. Ivan Bobrinetskiy from the Biosense Institute highlight ultrafast laser processing of 2D materials as an efficient technique for fabricating 2D material-based devices.
When an ultrafast laser pulse (femtosecond or picosecond) irradiates 2D materials, the process begins with interactions at the electronic structure level. This direct interaction with charges can trigger a number of photochemical and photoacoustic reactions without heating the atomic lattice. Thus, instead of ablation, an ultrafast pulse can lead to chemical and structural modifications of 2D materials.
Perspective applications of ultrafast laser processed 2D materials
Perspective applications of ultrafast laser processed 2D materials. (Image: Biosense Institute)
The researchers discuss various ultrafast techniques recently developed in the processing of graphene and other 2D materials, such as two-photon oxidation/reduction, peeling, forging, phase transition, and more. The highly tunable parameters of these processes and different combinations of modification methods (e.g., changing the atmosphere) show great potential for the development of customizable devices.
The review covers applications in (opto)electronics, photonics, memory devices, bio- and stress sensors, and microscale systems. The authors discuss the prospects of the technology in terms of scalability and reproducibility. This emerging approach aligns with advancements in turning femtosecond lasers into eco-friendly manufacturing tools.
Overall, ultrafast laser processing provides a new and facile route for producing 2D material-based devices with unique functionalities. The combination of novel physical properties and scalable direct writing offers significant advantages over conventional graphene processing techniques. This review demonstrates the versatility and potential of ultrafast laser technology for the fabrication of advanced devices.
Source: Biosense Institute (Note: Content may be edited for style and length)
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