Injury to the retina and optic nerve leads to irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and irreparable damage to their axons which ultimately leads to blindness. Providing a sustained source of neurotrophic growth factors is required to promote their survival and regeneration. Transplanted dental pulp stem cells secrete multiple growth factors which protect RGCs from death after optic nerve injury and promote regeneration of their axons.
A breakthrough discovery into how living cells process and respond to chemical information could help advance the development of treatments for a large number of cancers and other cellular disorders that have been resistant to therapy.
With lifesaving applications possible in both inhibiting and accelerating the creation of new blood vessels, a more fundamental understanding of what regulates angiogenesis is needed. Now, researchers have uncovered the existence of a threshold above which fluid flowing through blood vessel walls causes new capillaries to sprout.
Every organism has one aim: to survive. Its body cells all work in concert to keep it alive. They do so through finely tuned means of communication. Researchers have now successfully revealed for the first time the laws by which cells translate signals from their surroundings into internal signals.
Scientists have shown for the first time that stem cells created using different methods produce differing cells. The findings provide new insights into the basic biology of stem cells and could ultimately lead to improved stem cell therapies.
Squid tentacles are loaded with hundreds of suction cups, or suckers, and each sucker has a ring of razor-sharp teeth that help these mighty predators latch onto and take down prey. Researchers report that the proteins in these teeth could form the basis for a new generation of strong, but malleable, materials that could someday be used for reconstructive surgery, eco-friendly packaging and many other applications.
Sea cucumbers change the stiffness of their skin, Venus flytraps roll up their leaves and even pine cones are capable of closing up their scales at increasing levels of humidity. In the course of evolution, Nature has managed to give rise to complex materials capable of responding to external stimuli by way of mechanical movement. Which is exactly what chemists are now trying to do as well - and with considerable success.
By confining colonies of human embryonic stem cells to tiny circular patterns on glass plates, researchers have for the first time coaxed them into organizing themselves just as they would under natural conditions.
Researchers have demonstrated that when exposed to repeated cycles of antibiotics, within days bacteria can evolve a new adaptation, by remaining dormant for the treatment period to survive antibiotic stress. The results show for the first time that bacteria can develop a biological timer to survive antibiotic exposure. With this new understanding, scientists could develop new approaches for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.
By labelling the ends of thousands of microtubules, which are indispensable and extremely dynamic and variable, researchers have finally been able to follow their distribution and movement during the assembly of the mitotic spindle.