A powerful new tool that can help advance the genetic engineering of 'fuel' crops for clean, green and renewable bioenergy, has been developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)?s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI). The JBEI researchers have developed an assay that enables scientists to identify and characterize the function of nucleotide sugar transporters, critical components in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls.
Scientists have discovered that stem cells inside the soft tissues of the tooth come from an unexpected source, namely nerves. These findings contribute to brand new knowledge of how teeth are formed, how they grow and how they are able to self-repair.
Around 75 per cent of the supposed functionless DNA in the human genome is transcribed into so-called non-coding RNAs (ribonucleic acid). To date, little is known about its function. Researchers have now been able to demonstrate that the production of non-coding RNAs is precisely regulated. They suspect that non-coding RNAs might play a role in regulating cellular processes or in the modified immune response following exposure to environmental toxicants.
Researchers have demonstrated a dramatically improved technique for analyzing biological cells and tissues based on characteristic molecular vibrations. The new technique is an advanced form of Raman spectroscopy that is fast and accurate enough to create high-resolution images of biological specimens, with detailed spatial information on specific biomolecules, at speeds fast enough to observe changes in living cells.
A EUR 7 million EU-funded project has been launched with the intention of replacing chemical cosmetic production techniques with eco-friendly alternatives. By doing so, the OPTIBIOCAT project hopes to provide the natural cosmetics sector with the necessary technical sophistication to meet growing consumer demand for natural, environmentally friendly products.
Researchers have developed a scalable, next-generation platelet bioreactor to generate fully functional human platelets in vitro. The work is a major biomedical advancement that will help address blood transfusion needs worldwide.
Scientists have developed a powerful new single-cell technique to help investigate how the environment affects our development and the traits we inherit from our parents. The technique can be used to map all of the 'epigenetic marks' on the DNA within a single cell.
Recent advances in imaging technology are transforming how scientists see the cellular universe, showing the form and movement of once grainy and blurred structures in stunning detail. But extracting the torrent of information contained in those images often surpasses the limits of existing computational resources. Now, researchers have created a new computational method to rapidly track the three-dimensional movements of cells in such data-rich images.
Scientists were able to measure the amount of protein molecules in living human cells required to form an important structure of the chromosome, the centromere. This study presents new methodologies that may also be used to unveil other biological problems.