Microscale reactor technology has tremendous advantage over conventional macro-scale or batch chemical processes, and offers versatility for a wide range of applications including chemical analyses, drug discovery, radiotracer synthesis, and the fabrication of engineered nanomaterials. Attention is currently focused on developing scaleable process regimes, using an approach engineers call numbering up. Microreactor technology is defined by a series of interconnected, functionally distinct channels formed on a planar surface, utilizing either hydrodynamic or (EOF) for pumping, with channel dimensions typically between 10-300 microns.
Objects a thousand times smaller than the wavelength of infrared light (10 micrometers) are undetectable by standard far-field optical infrared microscopy since the weak nanoparticle signals would be buried far below the background level. To overcome this drawback and to achieve nanoscale spatial resolution researchers in Germany illuminate the nanoparticles by a highly intensive nanoscale infrared light spot. It is generated in the nano-gap between a laser-illuminated scanning metal tip and the substrate supporting the particles. The simple but very efficient trick finally allowing detection of sub-10 nm particles is the use of highly reflecting substrates instead of glass slides typically used as a sample carrier in optical microscopy.
Among many nanomaterials with distinct geometric shapes, spheres and cubes are the two simplest forms, yet they possess the highest symmetries. One of the obvious geometric merits of this class of materials is their low resistivity under fluidic conditions, as they can be essentially considered as zero-dimensional entities when their size is trimmed down to the nanoscale regime. So far, most hollow interiors of nanomaterials are created by template-methods. Researchers in Singapore for the first time demonstrated that nanostructured polyhedrons of functional materials with desired interiors can be synthesized template-free through a simple hydrothermal method.
The year 2005 was an important year for nanoscience and nanotechnology in Latin America. Brazil increased federal funding for its nanotechnology program. In Mexico, the Senate Committee for Science and Technology declared itself in favor of the development of a National Emergency Program for investment in research and teaching of nanotechnology. In Colombia, the National Council of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology was created. But all this was not done without controversy; and it was in Argentina that conflicts in the scientific and political spheres were concentrated, with repercussions in the media. In Argentina, many of the things that took place in a short span of time might take longer than in many other Latin American countries.
Some microbes are able to tolerate radioactivity and other toxic environments because they developed detoxification mechanisms that allow them to resist adverse environments without being damaged. These protective mechanisms increasingly are of great interest to scientists not only for developing innovative remediation strategies but also for creating novel biotechnological applications. As a recent example, researchers in Germany managed to produce highly stable and regular palladium (Pd) nanoparticles by harnessing the survival mechanism of bacteria found in uranium-polluted waste. These particles showed much improved catalytic activity and other new physical properties , which make them ideal for use as nanocatalysts or nanosensors.
Conventionally, the fabrication of thin film nanostructures is primarily done by using selective etching or templating growth on a prepatterned resist and then performing lift-off. The solvents used in developing resist are typically toxic and add to the cost of lithographic processing. Recently, many environmentally friendly lithographic processes have been designed using either a water-based solution or supercritical carbon dioxide to develop the resist. A novel pure water developable spin-coatable lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (LSMO) resist has been developed by scientists in Taiwan. The use of pure water instead of organic or alkaline solvents would undoubtedly be not only environmentally desirable but also could greatly simplify the imaging process.
Current production methods for carbon nanotubes result in units with different diameter, length, chirality and electronic properties, all packed together in bundles, and often blended with some amount of amorphous carbon. The separation of nanotubes according to desired properties remains a technical challenge. Especially single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sorting is a challenge because the composition and chemical properties of SWCNTs of different types are very similar, making conventional separation techniques inefficient.
A number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer Disease, may potentially be treated by gene therapy, i.e. the delivery of therapeutic genes to neurons. Currently, the most common carrier molecules to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells are viruses that have been genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. Overall gene delivery efficiency is typically low for nonviral vectors. New research undertaken at The Johns Hopkins University offers a systematic approach to understanding the gene delivery process in neurons and explores the intracellular barriers to nonviral gene delivery and possible ways to improve their effectiveness.